Dr. Jason Zastre, Associate Professor, has published a paper in Toxicology Letters: “Plasma protein binding limits the blood brain barrier permeation of the pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin.” He was also the invited speaker at the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) Drug Transporter Workshop in Baltimore, MD. The workshop was held April 17, 2016. Dr. Zastre gave a talk titled “Thiamine Transporters in Cancer.”
“Plasma protein binding limits the blood brain barrier permeation of the pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin” authors: Manoj Amaraneni, Anshika Sharma, Jing Pang, Srinivasa Muralidhara, Brian S. Cummings, Catherine A. White, James V. Bruckner, Jason Zastre. Drs. Cummings, White, and Bruckner are also faculty with the Department.
Abstract: Previous pharmacokinetic studies of deltamethrin (DLM) have revealed that brain levels of this highly lipophilic pyrethroid insecticide are only 15–20% of plasma levels. Experiments were performed to assess determinants limiting CNS access including plasma protein binding and the efflux transporter, P-gp. A human brain microvascular endothelial cell line, hCMEC/D3, was utilized as a model in vitro system to evaluate blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeation. Incubation of DLM with a series of human serum albumin (HSA) concentrations showed that unbound (fu) DLM ranged from 80% with 0.01% HSA to ∼20% at the physiologically-relevant 4% HSA. A positive correlation (R = 0.987) was seen between fu and cellular uptake. Concentration-dependent uptake of DLM in 0.01% HSA was non-linear and was reduced at 4 °C and by the P-gp inhibitor cyclosporine (CSA), indicative of a specific transport process. Cellular accumulation of [3H]-paclitaxel, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, was increased by CSA but not by DLM, suggesting that DLM is neither a substrate nor an inhibitor of P-gp. The concentration-dependent uptake of DLM from 4% HSA was linear and not significantly impacted by temperature or CSA. In situ brain perfusion studies monitoring brain association of DLM at 0.01% and 4% HSA confirmed the aforementioned in vitro findings. This study demonstrates that brain uptake of DLM under normal physiological conditions appears to be a passive, non-saturable process, limited by the high protein binding of the pyrethroid.